Guest Post – Collective Rights Management in Nigeria: Unitary v Multiple Collecting Society Models by Olumide Mustapha (@lumes_bg)

music

The recent reports regarding the Concerned Copyright and Intellectual Property Owners’ (CCIPO) open letter to the Honourable Attorney-General of the Federation, Mohammed Adoke-Bello (SAN) (AG-Fed) is of tremendous import with regards to the development of the music industry in Nigeria. The letter contained a plea by the CCIPO for the AG-Fed to intervene on behalf of the former to compel the Nigerian Copyright Commission (NCC) to approve another collecting society for owners of music copyrights.

 

The matter centres around the issue of collective administration of musical copyrights in Nigeria. In particular, the issue of the collection of royalties and the monopoly of the Copyright Society of Nigeria (COSON) in this area, being the only body approved by the regulator, the NCC, to operate as a collecting society for music rights.

 

As it stands, COSON has both been very vocal and visible with respect to its fight against criminal copyright infringement as well as holding various organisations and industries liable in civil law for lack of payment of license fees. This is in addition to its public relations offensive and educational activities to promote the issue of copyright in the music industry. The organisation’s efforts over the last two years have been commendable and the amount of fees they have been collecting and distributing have reportedly been increasing year on year.

 

Where the organisation has been heavily criticised has been in relation to its royalty calculation and distribution formulae, and associated methods. Lack of transparency has also been a levied at the company in addition to the issue of its lack of adequate infrastructure for monitoring the uses of works by commercial users throughout the country.

 

Now, while I am in total agreement with the wide held view that competition is crucial to the development of any industry and economy, the area of collective rights management is unique and therefore requires a gradual process of development until it can be (fully) de-regulated.

 

The mere approval of another collecting society will not in itself ensure that more users will pay license fees for use of music in their respective businesses, nor that music owners will enjoy greater compensation for use of their works. The tendency of (over)- “fragmentation” that is prevalent in most spheres of Nigerian social and economic structures will likely be the result of this desire for ‘de-regulation’, resulting in more confusion, higher transaction costs and ending in less users paying license fees or using music.

 

What   is Collective   Rights   Management:   Pro-Monopoly   v Anti-Monopoly

 

Collective management of copyrights is a system in which owners of works authorize collective management organisations (“Collecting Societies”) to monitor the use of their works, negotiate with prospective users, issue licenses against appropriate remunerations, (usually on the basis of a tariff system), collect such remuneration and distribute it amongst the owners of the works.

 

The rationale for this system arises from the impracticability of managing these activities individually. The transaction costs involved for rights owners to individually administer the public performance rights, (for example), to their works would likely end up being more than the price of the license fee for the use of same.

 

Thus, third-party organisations represent the interests of a group of owners and these ‘collective rights’ organisations, (by virtue of their core activities), enjoy economies of scale when administering these rights on behalf of a large group of rights holders.

 

COSON has repeatedly argued that it is adequately protecting the interests of Nigerian music copyright owners, citing the many civil suits it has filed against various organisations and industries that use music in the course of their businesses. The anti-monopoly advocates, on the other hand, point to COSON’s lack of transparency and accountability, with particular regard to monitoring of works and royalty distribution amongst its members.

 

NCC: Collecting Society Approval Powers

 

Nigeria’s current legal framework with regards to the collective management of music rights (and its regulation) is contained in the Copyright Act Chapter C28, Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004 (the “Act”), and the Copyright (Collective Management Organisation) Regulation 2007. We operate what can be described as a unitary Collecting Society model with the flexibility to accommodate multiple societies, while having NCC as the overall regulator.

 

Based on our system, the NCC is not obliged to grant any other organisation a license to operate so long as it is of the opinion that COSON is adequately serving the interests of music copyright owners. Also, because the Act is silent on what would constitute the ‘adequate protection of interests’, it is presumably left to the NCC to decide upon.

 

Going Forward

The primary focus should be on issues surrounding the distribution methods of COSON as well as the adequacy of its infrastructure for the monitoring of the use of works. Audio recognition software as well as the use of ‘field operatives’ to gather accurate evidence of use of works by businesses, broadcasters and other commercial users should be the short to medium term aim. The accurate collation of music usage by licensees also serves the secondary purpose of providing a basis for a more equitable distribution of royalties and license fees amongst members. Commercial users are not mandated by law to keep playlists and logbooks so it is even more imperative for COSON to carry out these activities.

 

Both sides in the dispute must not lose focus of the ultimate goal; to wit, having a suitable administrative framework for music copyright administration in Nigeria, that would involve a simple and efficient method for users to obtain lawful   licenses   to   enjoy   creative   works,   whilst   ensuring   the   equitable distribution of fees and the rewarding of creators thereby stimulating further creativity and innovation. It seems both sides of the argument have this intention in mind and must therefore cooperate and engage in continuing dialogue to find some middle ground on which a consensus can be built.

 

Olumide Mustapha Esq (QSEW) is a Media and Entertainment Attorney. He can be reached by telephone on +234 810 421 55 00, or by email at lumimustapha@gmail.com. He also tweets from the handle @lumes_bg.

*********

To read further on COSON and its battles, disputes and progress, check out BON, COSON and MUSIC-SHUNs: 5 THINGS.

 

 

 

Streaming IS the Future; but Nigerian Music Needs to Turn on The Tap

music

Last week, Adele’s manager, Jonathan Dickins, was reported as saying during an interview that streaming is the future whether musicians liked it or not. His comments followed news that Taylor Swift had pulled her entire catalogue from Spotify, the world’s most popular streaming service.

Taylor Swift is not the first musician to grow less than enamoured of the service, or with streaming as an income generator for the industry. Last year, Radiohead musician Thom Yorke described Spotify as “the last desperate fart of a dying corpse”, when the group pulled its music off the service. More recently, musician/songwriter Aloe Blacc published an op-ed in which he also expressed grave reservations about streaming as a sustainable source of income. How true, can it be then, that streaming is the future?

Looking at it from Blacc’s perspective, there might be a point about the reward system but I think rather than an indictment on Spotify, it’s more symptomatic of where the industry is, as a whole. Blacc writes –

“Consider the fact that it takes roughly one million spins on Pandora for a songwriter to earn just $90. Avicii’s release “Wake Me Up!” that I co-wrote and sing, for example, was the most streamed song in Spotify history and the 13th most played song on Pandora since its release in 2013, with more than 168 million streams in the US. And yet, that yielded only $12,359 in Pandora domestic royalties— which were then split among three songwriters and our publishers. In return for co-writing a major hit song, I’ve earned less than $4,000 domestically from the largest digital music service.”

If that’s what’s now considered a streaming “success story,” is it any wonder that so many songwriters are now struggling to make ends meet?”

It sounds dire, but that’s 168 million streams versus exactly how much in sales? According to this site, the track sold 237,000 copies when it debuted in July 2013 and only broke the 1,000,000 mark 5 months later in October. Take a look at Billboard’s half year charts for digital singles too. Album sales are down, and have been on the downward trend since 2010. Streaming and subscription revenues, on the other hand, are growing, climbing 51% in 2013 and crossing the $1bn mark (summary here; full report here). The head of Global Trends and Futuring for the Ford Motor Company has also been quoted as saying that “young people prize access over ownership.” So, what’s the issue? Is Spotify, together with the other streaming services simply ripping people off?

The issue may be that content creators don’t fully understand the service yet. Chances are that many users don’t understand the back-end either (they don’t really need to, in all honesty), so if you’re one of them, you might want to check out this post. Another post suggests that Spotify has not sufficiently controlled the narrative and has allowed content creators and the media replace fact with fantasy.

In the latter post (the Lefsetz Letter), the point is made, agreeing with Adele’s manager, that YouTube is by far the bigger monster, paying far less than Spotify does, closely followed by P2P platforms, which pay nothing at all. The post however disagrees with Adele’s manager on some music being taken behind the subscription pay wall, because that would simply push users to YouTube and P2P, leaving the content creators with nothing.

Does this mean anything for streaming in Nigeria? Probably not in the near future. Unreliable mobile internet and expensive data plans mean that very few people without WiFi modems stream much. Furthermore, given that most of our musicians give most of their music away for free downloads, there is little incentive to explore streaming anyway. So, perhaps the Nigerian market prefers ownership to access and this is all moot for now. But I’m an advocate for long-termism, and mobile internet will work someday and voice/data bundles will become more affordable for the streaming demographic. What then?

The current industry model will probably need to change in a year or two. Right now, the model for success is giving music away for free, hoping it becomes a hit that leads to RBT revenue and, ultimately, live performances. This sort of ties in with Dickins’s breakdown of how revenue streams for successful artists today –

60-65% of their income is going to come from tickets, 15-25% from tour merch, 10-15% from publishing, 2-4% from ancillary and 2-4% from record sales.” (Here’s the link again, just in case; emphasis in the quote mine).

You can see though that it’s significantly different, in that 70-90% of revenue will come from touring (not “shows”!) and tour merchandise. However, publishing revenues aren’t insignificant either. Enter, COSON (and its pursuit of digital royalties).

If RBTs are going to be the way forward here, then the crazy percentages that the telcos take of the gross revenue (60-72%, before VAS companies split the net with the artistes/labels) need to come down significantly. The music industry should lobby as hard as they can for legislation to support this (shouldn’t be too hard, with so many entertainers gunning for office in 2015).

If, on the other hand, the African market is to become as competitive as the foreign market, then the industry needs to support its domestic music streaming companies. Streaming kills piracy, and if the numbers are large enough (hint, hint, artistes and label execs), it will put money directly in their pockets. As Lefsetz says, “tech is all about scale” and “people who put brakes on the future end up screwing themselves.”

In conclusion, everyone knows that digital is here and analogue is gone. For Nigerian musicians to fully maximise  revenue from digital, given that their largest market is local, they may need to approach the issue a little differently.

Music and Lyrics

music

Music has always been a time-stamp for me. Most songs that bubble to the surface of my consciousness remind me of very specific places and times. Panam Percy Paul’s Bring Down Your Glory reminds me of the most devout time of my life, in secondary school. When I hear Diana Ross’s Touch Me In the Morning, or Do You Know Where You’re Going To, I see my mum a much younger lady in my mind’s eye. I hear Dynasty’s Holiday or Midnight Star’s No Parking on The Dance Floor, and I see my dad, who’s pushing 70 now, busting moves. Maroon 5’s Songs About Jane was the soundtrack to my NYSC. Missing You, the Puff Daddy tribute to the Notorious BIG puts me firmly in Kuti Hall, UI, when you would hear at least five different rooms blasting different portions of the song at any one time. Michael Buble’s Home reminds me of my bittersweet time as a perpetually broke masters’ degree student in Southampton. And so on.

Perhaps the way I consume music has also contributed to the time-stamping factor. I want to hear the layering of the instruments and vocals and hear how the producer changed the beat at the hook or the bridge. Most of all, however, I want to hear each and every single lyric and try to figure out what was going through the composer’s mind when he wrote the song. Since we got Google, rather than merely looking for the words, I also search for the background to the songs, and you’d be surprised how much history you might come across in that endeavour.

For instance, if you research the song Layla, made popular by Eric Clapton, you will find that it was inspired by his love for Pattie Boyd, who at the time he met her was married to George Harrison of the Beatles. Boyd would later divorce Harrison and subsequently marry Clapton, although the latter union did not last either. Boyd is also said to have inspired another of Clapton’s critically acclaimed hits, Wonderful Tonight. More surprising though, was the fact that she did not really return Clapton’s love, reportedly leading him into the spiral of acute drug and alcohol addiction. With some other songs, like Don’t Look Back In Anger by Oasis, you find that the composer was so spaced out of his mind during writing, he had no idea what the song was about.

And, contrary to what the preface might suggest, older local music also held its allure. Kris Okotie (now Reverend), Felix Liberty, Harry Mosco, Majek Fashek, Sunny Okosuns, all wrote enduring songs. Music was an art, that required dedication, nurture, time and talent.

Advances in technology have democratised everything however. And, armed with nothing more than the same laptop on which I’m publishing this piece to an international audience, anyone can make and publish music much more easily today. It is not certain whether this dilution in production requirementsalso led to the dilution in song writing but Nigerian music is in a song-writing crisis. Of course, it wasn’t always so.

After Nelson Mandela was freed and conscious music died in Nigeria, we all just trudged along for a while. Blackky, Alex O and Alex Zitto flew the flag for a while, Emphasis’s Which One You Dey? and Junior & Pretty’s Monica probably set the tone for indigenous rap around that time. Eedris AbdulKareem of The Remedies then took “rap” to the twilight zone but redemption, for me, came in the persons of Styl Plus. Personally, I don’t believe the story of today’s music in Nigeria can be told without mentioning the absolute game-changers that Styl Plus were. We once again had real lyrics, unprecedented vocal harmony and cutting edge music production. Their Olufunmi remix featuring Da Capo was without doubt the reset button for Nigerian hip-hop and rap.

I’d like to say the rest is history, with all the international superstars we now have but the lyrics lover in me says no. If we had charts in Nigeria today, I don’t think very many songs would be top 10 for more than 2 weeks. The very generic sound of most songs, poor production, similarity in lyrics and gimmickry all make for a very short-term hits market. And, at the end of the day, it seems most artists want to make a hit rather than good music. Now, I’m not naïve enough to think that music should not pay its creators but hit music here is frequently not very good music, and I think this is why most songs have a 2-week top 10 shelf-life or perhaps even less.

The music mostly doesn’t even sound great unless one is intoxicated either by the ambience of a crowd or the infusion of alcohol and I would argue that it isn’t distinctive enough to stamp anyone’s time or memories. Too many artistes are either asking the girl to “whine am down low” or “follow me go” or just stringing words together in unnatural sequences.

I have argued before that this sort of music isn’t the type that will pay artistes into their old age. Music doesn’t always have to make sense but it should sound original and artistes cannot be releasing albums where 7 of 12 tracks sound alike, or 4 tracks out of 11 sound lie you’re recycling your old hits.

Or perhaps the reality is that age brings with it a growing disconnect from the music of the day. I remember my dad not getting the point of expletive-laden rap, with its monotonous basslines, but you try throwing on a few Biggie and Tupac joints at a wedding reception or stag do today and see what happens.

Let’s encourage artists to pay more attention and devote more effort to writing, and let’s support those who make the effort by buying their music. If the legend that is 2face Idibia could finally give in and include a Go-Down-Low line in Go, the opening track to his latest album, I would suggest it’s because we did not reward him enough for Only Me, Rainbow and all the other lyric-laden smash hits on his previous one. There’s no greater incentive than putting our money where our mouths are.

Balancing Label – Artist Contracts

music

Why aren’t our labels and their artists getting along? Virtually all major labels have had a public spat with an artist, leading many times to the artist attempting to leave without being released from his contract. Expectedly, these matters have got tied up in court, with the artist prevented from working until after the suit has ended. What’s making artists so upset?

In the parallel universe where things work and there is a just reward for artistic creativity, getting a record deal is usually cause for celebration. The artist knows he/she will be paid a lump sum advance by the label, usually in instalments, which the label will try to recoup over the life of the contract, through record sales, touring, etc. In our dimension of the universe, a record deal seldom means more than the artist finding someone willing to pay for styling, studio time and video shoots in exchange for 60-70% of the artist’s net takings. Advances are rare for artists who aren’t yet established; who haven’t, as we say, “blown”, so many new/up-and-coming acts depend entirely on the label for their day-today maintenance.

This arrangement is usually fine until the artist’s first hit. The artist gets a glimpse of his/her potential earning power and, like Adam and Eve after partaking of the forbidden fruit, their eyes open.  A restlessness develops that, if not managed properly, will lead to the sort of confrontations and frustrations that the Nigerian industry has seen of late.

This is not to say that the labels are without blame, however. Most of the contracts in circulation, in addition to there being no advance, have no minimum commitment (financial or otherwise) for the labels. This effectively means there is no legal means of exit for the artist in the event that the label does nothing to promote the artist or unduly delays the release of recorded material.  An artist will be locked in until his/her minimum album requirement, a factor largely under the label’s control, has been discharged. This lack of minimum label commitments is understandable, given that it is the labels that draft the contracts (and will therefore insert the most favourable terms possible) and many artistes are too desperate to even think about getting a professional review before signing the contracts.

Some contracts have a term of X years, with the option to renew for Y additional 1-year periods. For example, a 4-year contract, after which the label is entitled to exercise the option to renew the contract for 2 additional terms of one year. This is potentially a 6-year deal. How does a label keep a Nigerian artist happy for 6 years? Chances are that you’re renewing because the artiste has “blown” by year 3 or 4. The artist’s expectations are likely to have changed with his stature.

But the labels aren’t in it for charity either. At the end of the day, they invest in the artist to reap a profit, like any other businessman. With the dependency on reformed(?) pirates for physical “sales”, digital suffering from the abundance of free music and quality videos costing what they do today, a long contract is probably the best way to hedge against un-recouped investment. And if the vast income spent in years 1 and 2 of a 4-year contract is rewarded with dismal revenues, what’s the incentive to keep spending for years 3 and 4? And why let the artist go after year 4 if your net profit is still a negative sum?

Can a middle ground be found?

The increasing frequency of falling-outs between artists and their labels suggests that a middle ground has  to be found. It may be due to my inherent professional bias, but I think the solution lies in the contracts, drafting them and understanding them. Professionals who draft contracts need to present their principals with pre-emptive solutions to cover the commercial realities they are likely to face, given the industry’s landscape over the past few years. As with any investment, parties need to set parameters for recognising when the investment/partnership/relationship has failed and prescribe how to walk away. In addition to acknowledging that the thrust of a recording/360 contract is not a lifetime of servitude, labels may wish to consider inserting a sliding buyout scale (e.g. un-recouped advances to date + expenses to date + N5m(year 1) or N10m(year 2) or N15m (year 3)) for an artist who wants to walk away even if  the label has met its obligations.

Contracts set out each Party’s expectations of the other, but signing one presumes that each party knows what is reasonable to expect of the other (so it can negotiate) and that each party understands what has been written down (so that it can review). Clearly, the unexposed artist is at the receiving end of this spectrum. Artists who can’t afford lawyers and who can’t get the label to pay for independent advice need to know the right questions to ask. Here are a few suggestions –

  • If the contract is for 5 albums, how frequently do you (the label) have to put one out?
  • If you don’t release an album within agreed time-frames, what is my remedy? How long can you withhold my music or deny me recording support before I can give you notice and walk away?
  • How much of the money you spend on me is a loan (and therefore recoupable) and how much is an expense (your investment)?
  • If it’s all recoupable (i.e. a loan, meaning I, the artist, effectively paid for it) how long after recoupment does ownership of the masters revert to me?

The “DaLevie” Code

“Convert to Digital and then change the entire product.” That’s how my mind summarised it, anyway. That tweet from Aaron Levie is probably one of the most intriguing things I’ve read on Twitter. It seems to me like that will be the recipe for success this century. Find a physical product, switch it to digital, then change the product and “watch the money pile up”.

Coincidentally, a few days after seeing the tweet, I came across UK music sales numbers for 2013. Streaming, the entertainment channel du jour, seems to be coming into its own very nicely. Music streaming is up 33% on 2012’s numbers, significantly outpacing physical sales in year-on-year growth (overview available here). In the US, Netflix, which inspired the Levie tweet, has seen a 4% increase in revenue, with pay-TV channels reporting a 6% decline in subscriptions over the same period.

UK Music Stats

 

Music streaming is going to have to peak sometime soon, though.  This piece compares 15 streaming platforms (including the just-come-online Beats), each with a catalogue of over 20 million songs. That it omits the largest players in the African market can mean any of several (good or bad) things, depending on how you want to slice it. However, if Spotify, the largest (by reputation, if not revenues) reported a net loss of £49.1 million for 2012, is there really going to be gold at the end of this gold rush? It’s not all doom and gloom however, as streaming revenue in the UK this year was over £100m. Unclear how much of this is profit, but as this piece and this one show, Amazon (for example) continues to defy the huge-revenues-no-profits logic.

And even if streaming peaks in the Europe and the US with all their internet saturation, Africa’s numbers suggest that an Africa “Boom” is still possible. PWC’s South African Entertainment and Media Outlook (2013-2017) – which includes Nigeria and Kenya (download links available here) – contains lots of relevant data. The Nigeria report says, amongst other things, that the fastest growth area in consumer spending will be internet access, with a compound annual growth rate of 49%. The 2017 Nigeria internet market is projected to be worth US$5.6bn and mobile is expected to dominate this, with the current 8 million mobile broadband subscriptions estimated to rise to over 40 million in 2017. That’s 40 million potential music streaming customers in Nigeria alone, over the next 3 years. If we use the Spinlet N3,000/month subscription to attempt a layman’s gauge of the market, that’s roughly a potential annual pool of  [Error, Error, Error]. Chuckle.

So, what product will YOU convert to digital and then change entirely?

The Problem With Our Live Performances

When you buy or are given tickets to attend a concert, is your expectation merely to see musicians in the flesh or to hear them sing and watch them put on a show? Chances are that most people are hopeful for a real performance when they head out to shows and this is why our musicians must not simply dismiss it as “hating” when their customers (ie we the listeners) complain about artists coming on stage to simply shout over their street-copy singles.

There are a few of reasons why I think the industry needs to re-evaluate its predominant mode of live performances. The first is that it adds no value to the artist’s brand or public image. You jump over the entire stage yelling your lyrics over music I already have on my iPod or in my car. It takes no craftsmanship to do that – the concert promoters might as well doll up some average Joe on the streets, slap sunshades on him, teach him the lyrics to your song and ask him to run all over the place, asking people to throw their hands up.

Secondly, in an industry where music is sounding increasingly homogenous, both lyrically and rhythmically, an artist does not differentiate himself from the others if he gives the exact same performance that everyone who gets on stage before of after him will give – yet this is what happens at most shows. The result is very few memorable performances, if any.

Thirdly, because of the hopelessly poor audio (shouting hoarsely and mostly out of sync over street-copy music) artists kill potential additional revenue streams from post-event marketing, such as DVDs and CDs.

Now, obviously, accompanying musicians and backing vocalists cost money and most labels and stars are struggling with very slim revenue margins. So, kudos artists who customarily perform with a band. My argument, however, is not that artists who cannot afford it break the bank hiring a band. In fact, many foreign artists, when they come here, perform over a CD. The difference is, the backing CDs of these foreign artists are stripped of lead vocals. So, for example, you didn’t hear either Joe or Maxi Priest singing over their own leads (at the MTN Corporate Elite Concert), even though neither came with a band. Secondly, these guys come with their own DJs, to segue the music properly and maybe even loop a few bars for the artist to ad lib over.

Most music is mixed and mastered with software these days, so I can’t imagine it being very hard to simply take out the lead vocal tracks and create a separate backing CD for live performances.

The industry deserves commendation for how far it has come. Music is mixed and videos are shot to the highest international standards, and our performers deserve credit for this. There is still some way to go with live performances however, and I urge the industry to take a closer look at this in 2014. I can’t believe I’m going to quote Donald Trump, but I heard him say this once in an interview a while back, talking about his success: Nobody wants a free lunch. Give them an unforgettable lunch and you can’t miss.

Who’s Covering You?

Beatles

Beatles (Photo credit: Ricard Lopez 1)

Does it ever happen to you that you catch the last chorus of a song you haven’t heard since you were a child, and because of all the memories that accompany the song, you google it, wikipedia it, youtube it, repeat the video 50 times and discover that it was covered by quite a few artists? Then you listen to all the different versions and see how each person made the song unique to them? No? Ah, just me then.

The song that’s most recently done this to me is “You’ve got a friend”. The song was originally done by Carol King in 1971 and has been covered by at least 10 other artistes since. Apparently, it was also recorded by James Taylor in 1971 and both King and Taylor won grammies for the song in the same year.

I found myself wondering today, whether that’s the mark of a truly great song. Your peers pay you the greatest amount of respect by doing your song and decades letter musicians still think the song is good enough to include on their album. And there are many songs like this – in the days of dixieland jazz, you had Nat King Cole, Ella Fitzgerald, Louis Armstrong, Frank Sinatra and Dean Martin (to name a few) all cover each other’s songs. Songs like Mack the Knife, Cheek to Cheek, Ain’t Misbehaving and Nature Boy.

Inching closer in time, The Beatles wrote so many great songs, they’ve been covered more times than a newborn baby in  winter. Other well-covered songs include Bill Withers‘ Lovely Day, Simon and Garfunkel‘s Bridge Over Troubled Water, Dionne Warwick‘s Walk on By, Stevie Wonder‘s AS (actually Stevie is very heavily covered too), and the list goes on quite a bit. And let’s not talk about Michael and Elvis who people not only cover but actually have acts making a living from aping them.

Today, I had 3 versions of You’ve Got A Friend on heavy rotation – Carole King’s, Don Williams’ and James Taylor’s and I got to thinking if any of the songs we’re jamming today will ever be covered. I know rappers will always look in the archives for hooks to sample but how many songs today will be worth redoing in 3 years? Narrowing the scope of the question, how many Nigerian Artistes  write songs that anyone would want to redo in future? Nigerian songs from the past like Iyawo Asiko, Osondi Owendi, Eddie Kwansa, Bottom Belle, Joromi, Mo fe Mu’yan, have been covered by today’s stars. Are they making music worth covering?